Zero hunger – lmd
As the wall street journal on 29. march 2010, asked rhetorically, what the brazilians from your next president or your president to expect after the election in october, was the answer for the newspaper clearly said: “nothing changes!” this desire is not entirely surprising, and it is only because people who previously had to bite anything, have, for some years, access to reasonable food.
In september 2003, in the first year of his term, president luiz inácio “lula promised,” da silva: “until the end of my term in office no brazilian will have to suffer more hunger.”
Politicians often make exaggerated promises, but the progress made by lula during his term of office, are significant. according to official statistics are able to break free in the last seven years, almost 20 million brazilians (total population: 190 million) out of poverty. alone the program “fome zero” (zero hunger) enabled – thanks to a monthly subsidy of 18 to 90 euros – in particular indigenous families in the purchase of basic foodstuffs. within the first term, lula’s, the number of malnourished children decreased by 46 percent. in the region of nordeste, from which the president originates and where hunger has met, the number declined even to 74 percent. in may 2010, the world food programme (wfp) of the united nations, gives lula da silva, the title of “champion of the world in the fight against hunger”.
Brazil continues to be one of the countries, where extreme inequality. the has mitigated, however slightly, between 2003 and 2010, the income of the poorest 10 increased percentage of the population to 8 percent per year, much faster than the economy and the income of the richest 10 percent grew only by 1.5 percent. to the lower middle class whose household income is between 1 065 and 4 951 reais (467 up to 2 000 euros) per month, now includes more than 50 percent of the population, while it is only 37 were previously percent. in the area of education, the programme “prouni”, supports students from poor families; the duration of schooling has increased between 1995 and 2010, from an average of 6.1 years to 8.3 years.
During the two terms of office of the former trade union leader, 14 million jobs were created, and the minimum wage was increased, adjusted for inflation, to 53.6 percent. from this development, only the numerous low-wage employees, but also pensioners, and government support for dependent disabled, whose pensions are calculated according to the minimum wage will not benefit. the increase in the minimum wage had an impact on the share of labor income in the gross domestic product (gdp), has increased from 40 percent in 2000 to 43.6 percent in 2009.
The “bolsa família” (“family allowance”) is still the flagship program of lula’s social policy. with their families, living below the poverty line. the government, according to the statistics, 12.4 million households (more than 40 million people), on average, about 95 reais (a little more than 41 euro) per month.
What relates to the balance-sheet of lula’s government, so considerable doubts in some observers, however. in order to understand your critical point of view, you have to go to the origin of the “bolsa família”program.
Zero hour – lmd
Tunisia and egypt face the dual challenge of a political and economic stabilization. certainly, the overthrow of the mafia-type systems, which distributed the benefices among their followers, energy is set free. in the reconstruction of the state, many will pitch in. this commitment will, however, bear fruit only if the new governments to get financial resources at hand, to the failures of the past decades of catching up to do, and to provide for more equal opportunities. according to first calculations of the tunisian central bank and the egyptian economics ministry, the two countries need to be alone in the next five years, between 20 and 30 billion dollars of investment in transport, energy and technology to under-developed regions to integrate. under the slogan “invest in democracy, invest in tunisia”, politicians, entrepreneurs, managers, and scientists from all over the world to invest recently signed a “manifesto of the 200” in which the west is invited in the “new tunisia” to which a great future is said as one of the “most attractive economic centres” in the region.1
The united states and the european union have, however, made more or less clear that they are not inclined, in view of the public debt, the money faucet to turn on. at the meeting of the g-8 countries in the french deauville at the end of may 2011, the richest countries in the world, tunisia and egypt have promised for the next two years, 20 billion dollars, but this amount largely stems from payments that were already scheduled prior to the revolution.
The arab countries are not in any hurry to support their neighbors on the rocky road of democratization. algeria, for example, is sitting on about $ 150 billion in foreign exchange reserves from the oil and gas export. however, the tunisian neighbors were only a few dozen million. in addition, the eu initiated in 2002 the project of a mediterranean development bank is progressing for years, not a piece.
The european investment bank (eib) will provide up to 2013 loans in the amount of us $ 6 billion, and the european bank for reconstruction and development (ebrd), alongside the international monetary fund (imf) and the world bank are the main donors. unlike the eastern european countries after 1989, the mediterranean countries do not have a “own” bank for reconstruction and development.
In cairo and tunis had hoped for a type of second marshall plan2, but then the disappointment was great. all the more, as some economists have figured that the cost of such a plan would correspond to the expenditure for three months of the war in iraq, or 3 percent of what has been the cost of the german reunification.
In view of the poor prospects for the financial assistance that the size of the problems would be appropriate, have the imf and the world bank, both countries encouraged economic liberalisation continue to advance – even if it means that you have to be directed to the financing of their own development, especially to large international corporations. in the view of the international donors and the western multinationals – which have already passed in the southern mediterranean, feet, and more freedom of action want – is the magical solution to all the problems in the public-private-partnerships (ppp), public-private partnerships. the principle: a private company finances, builds and operates on behalf of the state or a local authority for a period of time a public service (water, energy, health, etc.). basically, it is a time-limited privatisations, which are only called differently. the international financial institutions require their own cynicism of the emerging democracies in north africa the same measures that you requested recently by the dictatorships.
The imf has since the beginning of the 1990s, not tired, to push hosni mubarak and zine el abidine ben ali and further economic reforms, including full convertibility of their currencies, the “improvement of the business climate” – which were mainly the facilitation for foreign investors, the withdrawal of the state from the economy and the liberalisation of the services sector.
Although the dictators were never their loyalty to the market economy into question, were you always out to promote the liberalisation too far. the possible consequences of a deepening of social divides were you aware of it. will bow to the future democratically elected governments to the demands for greater liberalisation of the economy, from the outside? and the ppps are really the solution?
The business people south of the mediterranean and the international institutions believe that the ppp instrument for the financing of new infrastructures is essential. however, the consequences of such cooperation projects are widely misunderstood. “the financial risk is borne by companies, the extra will be established for these projects, and borrow 90 per cent of the total investment. the instrument is designed for an environment with a functioning banking sector,“ explains françois lichère, which advises law firms, specializing in the formulation of ppp contracts. 3
For ppp are so healthy banks are needed and access to cheap credit. both of these conditions are met, neither in egypt nor in tunisia. many financial institutions are pushing an unsustainable mountain of debt in front of them and do not have the expertise to participate in complex financing transactions.4
Lots of black zeros – lmd
Lots of black zeros
Info box to a loud black zeros
Zero tolerance for the myth of the security – lmd
Fear and outrage is rampant in europe. because the “violence in the cities” and the “youth crime” jeopardize, it is said, the cohesion of the developed societies and require to fight tougher penalties. long ago the “crime is reduced” on the road of crime, that is to say on the crimes of the lower classes. in this way, acting as candidates, politicians, the summon in social and economic matters all the time, the state of fainting seek in france, in terms of “safety” a last bastion of the action capacity of the state to maintain.1 it is canon to authorize the “right to security”, while the “right to work” will be put to shame. because the latter is in the constitution, but in the face of persistent mass unemployment and the expansion of the wild-wage work to pure mockery. so, more and more people are losing their security.
Long since become the french evening news to mixed messages about criminal offences. misdeeds threaten always and everywhere. here are a pedophile teacher, there is a dead child, then a city bus that was pelted with stones. the evening prime-time special broadcasts are clustered according to the pattern of “ça peut vous arriver” (“this can happen to anyone”) of 13. february in the first french television under the title “violence in schools” was rolled up in this show, the story of a basic student, committed suicide after blackmail by a classmate’s suicide – an exceptional case that had to serve in the name of the quota as a prime example.
You can also use magazines and magazines are full of reports in which “the real numbers”, “hidden facts” and other “explosive news” on the topic of crime will be offered. it competes with the sensationalism of moralizing indignation; there is horror to be made exciting cards about “dangerous neighborhoods”, associated with “practical advice” on how you can defy the supposedly ever-present diverse dangers.2
Everywhere one hears complaints about the inaction of the authorities and the inability of the judicial system, and to constantly anxiety-ridden or exaggerated outrage of decent people will be summoned. pointedly, the french government is taking measures to fight crime, but even the dullest amongst its members, it should be clear that this causes for the problems they seek to solve, no nothing. an example: for every french policeman is creates a bullet-proof vest – and paid dearly – been, although 97 per cent fall during their career, never in an armed conflict, and although the number of policemen killed has decreased in the last ten years to the half.
The rights of the opposition promises to tirelessly that you will make in all areas is the same as the ruling left-hand – only faster, stronger and harder. with the exception of the candidate of the extreme left and the greens all politicians have raised in the french election campaign, the issue of security to the highest priority of state action. eager all ask the same simple-minded measures: increased police presence; focusing on the “youth” (in plain-text: from workers – and immigrant milieus), to the “recidivist” and the “hard core” of the criminal in the “suburban estates” (what a pleasant way to desk workers, except for the economic and criminal politicians); the speeding up of court procedures; tougher penalties; more use sentences to prison, even for minors, although sufficient evidence shows that young people are in prison only to real criminals. in order to enable all of this, the request of the candidate, an excessive increase in the sums, with the help of which the social order is forcibly maintained. also, the french president, a multiple repeat offender, seems to have lost every sense of shame, and calls for even harmless, law-quarters of “zero tolerance” (zero tolerance) violations in disadvantaged urban areas.
“safety” is a new figure in the political discourse of the major countries of europe. you are reconciled to the most reactionary rights, with the ruling left, and is therefore irresistible, because it relies on two of the largest symbolic powers of the present, to science and to america. so much the better, if both of the clubs to a american science that has proven its worth on top of that, in the american reality.
Just as the neoliberal vision of the economy based on dynamic equilibrium models that have been developed by orthodox economists in the united states (the country has almost a monopoly on the nobel prize in this discipline), the new “safety” in a scientific-rational form. you are to make a sophisticated criminological theory in the service of a resolute policy – a policy that is reasonable, ideologically neutral and non-appealable, because it can only be by the pursuit of maximum efficiency. the policy of subjection to the market and also the simple beliefs in terms of safety from a country, which today occupies a leading role, and so far the only in the history of the material and symbolic resources, to transfigure its historical specificity of a trans-historical ideal to come. the united states are everywhere the reality to your ideal image transform.3
Is not a pilgrimage happened to be in the last few years, french, british, italian, spanish, and german politicians of the left as the right shades to new york. you could demonstrate your new resolve to the fight against street crime, and they settled by the american authorities in their concepts and measures have.4 since then, supports the unit to think in terms of security issues on the science and politics of american crime control. this way of thinking consists of a combination of a scientific fairy-tale, the four core must be lit statements.
First fairy tales: the of crime-ridden america is now pacified to a large extent and with its crime statistics in a better position than france and other european countries. this fairy tale is that the united states had, until recently, a devastating high crime. it is only through the innovations in the police and criminal nature, the new york model the problem of crime had been “solved”. at the same time, the countries of the old europe had been recognised in the absence of more determined policy of a spiral of violence in the cities.
This knowledge, and spread by the mainstream media. it proves that you can say in the issues of endangered security and is taken seriously, as long as you reinforced the mood of catastrophe and in the repression of talk matches. because, in fact, been established for over ten years, thanks to the international crime victimization survey (icvs)5, that the united states have rates the average crime if one takes into account the frequency of “victimization” and not only by the authorities, published statistics on the crime bases. as experts know, from say the latter is more information about the activities of the police than about those of law-breakers. with the noted and explainable exception of the murders of america’s crimes are the values of rates for a long time with those of many other modern societies comparable, yes they are generally rather including. the united states was in 1995 in the case of car thefts and bodily injuries in the second place, behind the uk, in the case of the break-ins far behind canada in third place, in the case of sexual assault in seventh place, and in the case of simple thefts, with only half as many cases, like the netherlands, even in the last position.
Yet their murder rate with an annual rate of 10 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants at the beginning of the last decade, and with 6 deaths on 100 000 inhabitants today still six times as high as those in france, germany or the uk. the united states has a particular problem with deadly force by firearms, which focuses very heavily on the ghettos in the cities. this violence has to do with the sale of over 200 million guns and handguns (4 million americans every day carry a gun), the other with the deep roots of the black market in the disadvantaged districts of large cities.
Prescribed reconciliation – lmd
To end the murderous conflict between the algerian military and the islamists. although there is in the country’s interior is still attacks, but the army remained the winner after it has used all means to destroy your opponents.
On the 29. september 2005 was held in algeria, the referendum on the “charter for peace and national reconciliation”, the government wanted to draw a line under this chapter. for the implementation of the reconciliation plan that has been adopted by a large majority, to the decrees of 28. february 2006 contribute. rules for the financial compensation of relatives of the victims on both sides and offer the other an amnesty for members of the security forces, which human rights are accused of violations, and for members of armed groups involved in terrorist acts.
These decrees are the final response of the regime to the demands for truth and justice, which are raised by the families of the disappeared, such as human rights organisations. however, during the ten years of civil war, crimes against humanity are not create a legal shadow-boxing or a referendum from the world. already on 1. march found amnesty international, human rights watch, the international center for transitional justice (ictj) and the fédération internationale des ligues de droits de l’homme (fidh) in a joint statement: “a referendum like the one from the 29. september 2005, may not serve the purpose of a government is beyond national legislation to the international obligations.“ in the opinion of these organizations, the regulations for the “national reconciliation hurt” in several points of international agreements, algeria has signed.
The algerian human rights league (laddh) put it on 7. march is still sharper: “crimes against humanity […] do not expire and can be redeemed by amnesty or termination of the procedure. […] the state orders the completion of the cases are, therefore, null and void, to the extent that they are with the constitution and with universal legal rights to be incompatible, which is also valid in algeria and enforceable are.“
Using legal means to bring the regime, the many initiatives of the families of the disappeared to silence: they have been in force since 28. february as resolved. the relevant clause prohibits punishment that “all written statements, or other submissions, using the wounds of the national tragedy or to exploit, to weaken the state and its institutions-to attack and violate the honor of his representative […] or to damage the international reputation of algeria”.
The public responded to the new rules rather indifferent. but the conversation you may hear very different opinions. many algerians want to forget the horrors of war and, finally, others believe that the suffering of the victims and their families should not be swept under the carpet and let not money to compensate. in the state-controlled media, only the desire to forget is of course to listen to. individual commentators of independent daily newspapers, express doubt as to the course of the government. in el watan adlène mehdi pointed out in a subtle way, that paragraph 46 of the decree of 28. to not agree february with article 36 of the constitution, which guarantees freedom of expression,.1
Whether algeria would be a state of law, would have to declare the constitutional council, the new regulations null and void, and the organizations of the relatives of the disappeared have the right to protest.
The generals at the head of the algerian secret service, the drs are afraid of the human rights organizations and the pressure they can exert on international institutions. that’s why you want to complicate investigations of crimes committed in various torture centres from the outset. the usually well-informed information service nord-sud/risques internationaux reported that the drs will pull out since february 2006, especially from the notorious centre territorial de recherche et d’investigation in blida his people. currently, this institution had referred to all of the ngos in the years of the “dirty war” as a center for torture and extrajudicial executions. according to the desert contractor abdelkader tigha-terminated secret had been planned in blida, the kidnapping of the seven french trappist monks from tibéhirine in march 1996.
Nord-sud refers to the fact that the new provisions of algerians, not foreigners, not to the court against secret service employees in action. members of father christophe lebreton, one of the murdered monks, had already been refunded by the end of 2003 in paris, criminal charges. in february 2004, the recorded identification procedure could therefore lead to the questioning of officers that in blida service actions.
A process would provide the official version of some of between 1994 and 1997 massacres in question and the ngos reinforce the demand for a un special tribunal (for former yugoslavia and rwanda).2 finally, sets algeria on its role as a privileged partner of the united states in the fight against terrorism. also the relations with russia to be expanded. recently, the regime has bought for 3.7 billion dollars in russian military aircraft. and with france, a friendship will prepare the contract, which will also include a few unofficial agreements.
The fight against the islamists has weakened the army because they lost their support in the population. for the past 14 years not a single military parade is held more soldiers show in the holiday in uniform. armed islamism is defeated, but the islamic neofundamentalismus has gained influence.3 in the cities, a bigotter islamism, which is seen in the clothing and behaviour of many young people to become more widespread. he is, however, less aggressive than at the beginning of the 1990s, and is associated today with a ubiquitous “bazaar mentality”: even in the smallest alley is traded, what the market will bear, of ladies ‘ underwear to the latest mobile phone model. and the state leadership not more is already talk of socialism or social justice. today’s economy is called liberalism, or rather, mercantilism. the whole country
Oran has turned an entire neighborhood into a suk under the open sky. the mass crowd on streets and sidewalks, you can buy all kind of products, mainly import goods from southeast asia. at the trabendo, in the shadow economy, found thousands of young people to make a living.
The islamists have recognized the signs of the time and the business moved. like you point out that the prophet was a merchant and his followers have advised to use all the legal means of enrichment.4
Especially young people, to offer such transactions, whether legal or illegal, a way out of unemployment. the is according to the government, at 13 percent, but is estimated by louisa hanoune, a member of the labour party, on 30 percent. according to the international labour organization (ilo) and the international monetary fund (imf) was in 2000 at 29.5, 2003 23.7 2004 at 17.7 percent.
The government encouraged young people to become entrepreneurs and the banks to prefer business ideas from entrepreneurs under 30 at the time of lending. a thought-out economic policy that is not: usually the money is used, a pizzeria, or an internet café to open.
The political apathy is increasing. the algerians complaining about the inflation rate and the violence in the cities, not to believe but for a long time, that elections or armed struggle would change that. “you can buy everything, only you can’t pay for it,” says a retired civil servant: “i can be glad that two of my children do good business and help me to come over.”
The miserable exchange rate of the dinar (1 euro is equivalent to about 100 dinar) means especially for people with fixed incomes (workers, employees and officials) a drastic loss of purchasing power. a secondary school teacher earns the equivalent of 160 euros a month, a university professor 500 euro if he still taught on the side.
No wonder, then, that a new, independent unions have emerged. the unit trade union ugta has long been regarded as an instrument of governance. the new associations are demanding the increase of wages to the level of the neighbouring countries of tunisia and morocco.
“means it is not acceptable that a teacher in morocco, earned five times as much as a teacher in algeria, although algeria’s gross national product is ten times that of the moroccan”, a representative of the teachers ‘ union, cnes, which is not recognized in spite of their strength officially. “we will not drive a hard bargain, because many of our members submit the content to the half of the month. i don’t even speak of books that have long since become a luxury. we need salary increases, so we have to eat and our children will be able to supply.“
One-to-zero for scheherazade – lmd
Two years ago, during the ramadan of 2002, i realized that i have become a stranger in my own country. at that time, i became aware that the old arab world, was born in the i and the i was able to decipher and understand, a thing of the past. in the new world, women get it done to shock the “digital umma” – the satellite television networked islamic community: as a belly dancer in the most popular television series as well as film producer and presenter.
“in spite of the immense diversity of topics”, the columnist mohammed mahmoud, “have says all of the tv shows that run during ramadan, a together. no matter whether it is social, historical or religious, there will always be at some point, the obligatory belly dancer, which is attributed to dramaturgical expiration of the consignment a central role.“ mohammed mahmoud writes for the prestigious egyptian weekly magazine al-ahram al-arabi on talk shows. the most amazed him how varied are the roles that fills the belly dancer: “she is a key figure. time, she helps a businessman to career advancement, and other times it pulls him into the abyss. in a tv soap, she plays the heroine in the liberation struggle of the people, in the next series you support someone who is fighting for the zionist movement. reflects the omnipresence of the belly dancer in the ramadan tv is actually reality, or is only used as a seduction tool, to as many as possible to attract viewers?“1
You have to muster up a little sympathy for the al-ahram columnist, because it is not the belly dancer, which caused him chagrin. it is well known that for arab men, in contrast to the christian puritans in scandinavia or in the united states – a belly dancer is a very exciting sight, and for the egyptian man, and that is also true. what disturbed mahmud, is the fact that the ubiquitous belly dancer affected even in the case of spiritually-minded believers is the ability to rise above the sensual temptation, and to focus on their more esoteric tendencies.
You want to reach the state of harmony (wasat), one has to develop, first carefully defensive balanced mechanisms to protect them against the temptations protected and not in the extreme asceticism to drift away. this harmony is the highest goal of islam proclaimed since its origin before 1 423 years. but now that the harmony is disturbed, apparently, because the arab satellite television is showing us the beguiling female magic from pre-islamic times, the gluten acts on the male psyche-threatening.
Columnist mohammad mahmoud recalls the readers that ramadan is, in fact, a good time for film producers. because during the fasting month, believers day-to-day go as quickly as possible to go home and start right after sunset with the food; thus, they are easy prey for the program planners of the tv station. as proof, mahmud quoted one of the most important arab intellectual, taha hussein: “is not ramadan the month of spirituality, which offers the opportunity to come to allah? we should not expect, that during the holy month of the television taking care of our religious inclinations?“
But the belly dancers are the only women who have conquered the tv room. the most widely discussed television’s contribution during the month of ramadan in 2002, was not about the controversial series, “rider without a horse” (faris bila jawad), which has a rating in the united states and in the israeli media as an anti-zionist, but a film director in’the mohammad ali is a highly controversial egyptian feminist by the name of qasim amin, whose book “the liberation of women” (“tahrir al-mar’a”, a biting pamphlet on equality between the sexes) among the arab rulers in the 1930s for bright excitement had made sure of that. “qasim amin” was also the title of the tv series, which ran on many of the fifty or so arab satellite channels and the popular series “horseman without a horse” to the audience competed. both series of the british occupation, during the time in egypt of the 1930s and put the audience in the political turmoil of that time, however, with romantic intrigues in the harem of the corrupt turkish sultan interwoven.
The hero in “rider without a horse” from the opportunist however, there is in the british upperclass, and uses these relationships, while the ruling class confronts, in “qasim amin” the spectators as inhuman, so he identifies himself, as it is said in a tv column, “with the fate of the humiliated mother, and one of the other women in the harem, suffering from the arrogance of the warden to”. thus, the well-known egyptian director had gained a lot of male viewers and “that if a competent artist takes us into the past, it can be an escape from reality rather than to an elucidation of the same”2 .
Is the key statement of the director, that today, as seventy years ago, the liberation of the egyptian woman is the best chance to strengthen the country and the arab society, new energy supply but, while in “rider without a horse” with zionism, an external force for the arab weaknesses responsible will be referred to made, this is “qasim amin” of the internal impotence of the psychological dimensions of these weaknesses, which is why many media critics, this series clearly brisantere prompt radical introspection.
The entry of women into the boardrooms of the satellite channel started but not in the last two years. an egyptian magazine could refer to the (horrified) male readers, that “80 000 employees in the radio and television stations, 50 000 of them were women”. from the article, was detailed to learn, “how smart women create, the best positions in the management hierarchy and to conquer the lines of radio and television stations”.3 but the real sensation lies elsewhere: the female presenters at al-jazeera attract so many viewers, because they break the sexual taboos.
In the summer of 2002, i was extremely jealous of muntaha al-rimhy, one of the most intelligent and snappy most presenters at al-jazeera where i overheard on the beach at casablanca men’s conversations, it went to you, because you had dared to treat in one of your talk shows, the topic of “loss of sexual desire among spouses”. the only female guests – true to the motto of the show, “for women only”, spoke of a widespread and statistically alarming problem.
The male tv columnist ali aziz saw the show as a deliberate breaking of a taboo: “the female participants were asked to comment on the ‘weak sexual energy’ (future tense) between the spouses. the three guests is the topic discussed with the hostess in detail, analyzed the problem, which is increasing, in your opinion, steadily, and reported for both superficial and deeper reasons. emotional and education-related explanations dominated.“4 the presenter itself is not a language with intent of sexual impotence (‘ajz), but related instead to the treacherous word of the future, which actually means “energy loss” or “sudden weakness”. but for many men, is a particular problem. so one of my university colleagues said: “i would have liked muntaha had simply talked about sexual impotence. if a woman talks about the future tense, feels the man on the spot, guilty and inadequate.“ and from his point of view, my moroccan colleague was right. what him and certainly to the egyptian columnists do it, was the fact that the conversation of women about sex is an important cast member was missing: the man.
From heiner ganßmann
It is with extreme pride is germany’s finance minister schäuble know that the federal government will make in 2016, no new debt is saved. the “black zero” should be a big plus point for the government: “the german state is solidly financed and capable of action. in view of the challenges that we face, it is of crucial importance,“ says a statement by the federal ministry of finance.
The black zero is popular. but it actually stands for “sound” fiscal policy? the grinding traces of this policy can be most clearly seen in the development of the state’s investment to read. according to the data of the federal statistical office is invested in for years is less and less, especially by the federal government and the municipalities. worse still, the net investment will move more and more in the negative range. what does that mean? the national accounts shows that gross investment is the expenditure on durable goods, such as buildings, means of production and equipment. the depreciation will be deducted, so the estimated proportion that is consumed, worn out or otherwise renewing capital goods must be financed. left, the net investment is the additional capital goods, the amount spent.
The net investment is negative if the depreciation exceeds gross investment, i.e. if the investment goods consumed than will be replaced. in the case of the production capacities shrink, the infrastructure is vernutzt, the productivity is stagnant. this can be in certain areas is desirable when, for instance, for ecological reasons, the production of brown coal is driven. also in the public sector needs its share of a decline in the birth rate, possibly less schools. and still hypothetical: if the population is healthier, not as many hospitals if needed.
In germany, decrease the net investment, because important state services will be shut down. as schäuble was in 2009, minister of finance, the state net investments at 3 billion euros. since then, they went year to year, so that they in 2013 were almost at zero and 2014, with € 2.1 billion in the minus. it should have been, given the international financial market crisis rather expect that the german state is increasing its investment, and by 2011 at the latest, when the european central bank opted to raise the key interest rate and the weak recovery prematurely stalled. however, such a countercyclical policy wanted to schäuble know nothing.
Actually the german financial policy, practiced with the denial of investment is a covert variant of the neoliberal anti-statism, as they starve in the united states during the reagan era under the slogan of “starving the beast” – the beast is state – operated. here, the state budget has slipped to the tax reductions for the rich so deeply into deficit that spending cuts seemed inevitable. the berlin variation is explained differently. it utilizes the semantic relationship between “debt” and “debt” in order to assert a moral kinship of the two terms. although capitalism is not without credit, therefore no debt at all, should apply for the state: who does debt loads, a burden of guilt. overall, in economic terms, prohibits the public sector is, therefore, an active economic policy – if you don’t even braking.
Pop batches on a per-channel zero – lmd
Hajj lakhdar1 – he’s wearing a floor-length gandura, his beard is carefully trimmed, on the head a turban sits – enters the office. “the director is not there!” to call him an about ten-year-old toddler. lakhdar goes first, more still needs to be from the house master to stop, which has just mopped the floor. of all the undeterred, gives our hero finally gets admission in a government office, a clerk to his superiors just cuts the hair. refers to the hajj to a colleague, the loszetert immediately: “i need to finally feed my family!” on your desk vegetables, she cooks on a gas stove and dinner. finally lakhdar is received from the “director”. however, in his office of his children.
The scene is from an episode of the satirical television series “imarat hajj lakhdar” (“the city of the hajj lakhdar”), which has broadcasted in the algerian state television develop – the only algerian transmitter at all in the first half of the month of ramadan. the brave hajj lakhdar defies the arrogance of the officers and talks them into the conscience, to remind them of their duties: “you will not be paid by the state!”
“imarat hajj lakhdar” is not very sophisticated, but the series focuses on a bizarre way, the pitfalls of everyday life. the story takes place in a tenement house, which belongs to the main character lakhdar. his tenants to bring him in grotesque situations, and so each episode offers an opportunity, a “problem” to address, as it says in the credits: of the bureaucracy, illegal immigration to unemployment. the series is only broadcast on state television, which reflects at least in part, the algerian reality.
Hajj lakhdar are the moralists, the strict knecht ruprecht: “we live in the year 2008,” he explains, “in times of progress and modernity.” in another episode, the hero wants to teach his tenants “culture”. he demands that you take your satellite dish from the balcony and the waste just in time for the garbage collection to deploy. to the academics, all in the house are indignant about these arrangements. but none of them can so easily jump over his own shadow. hardly lakhdar’s hajj out of earshot, sighs of academics: “my god, as you lay to sleep at night, and the next morning he has again conjured up new rules for us out of the hat!” the algerians are, in this perspective, people who resist new developments, and cultural progress.
The owner of the house embodies the “father of the nation”. “he is strict, but he is for all of us as a good father,” says one of the tenants. lakhdar is the national conscience, the careful master of the house, takes care of his good-for-nothing kids, and the antics of his tenants patiently endures. although seemingly clear text is spoken, and considers himself “imarat hajj lakhdar” good to the unwritten rules: criticism is to be relocated out of the area the policies in the privacy – it’s about the symptoms, not the causes of maladministration, and of the rulers or the islamist leaders never mention.
“there is no censorship,” says develop-program director djamel benrabah. “each episode is broadcast, as the author has written. if he had made the dictatorship or islamism as the theme, that would have been sent. hajj lakhdar reads, after all, the state leadership of the levites.“
In order for the program director on an episode of the hajj lakhdar, the situation of the students that have no money, while other young people have nothing better to do than to drive in your convertible cars through the area refers to. “hajj lakhdar has called on the state to do something so that our students fleeing abroad,” explains djamel benrabah. “in the end, that is to say: we need culture. to be rich and uneducated, is pathetic.“
The fault lies in this series is always among the citizens. as president bouteflika accuses the young people, they would prefer to work as a night watchman, to the day, overslept, keeps lakhdar of the company, she was her own fault, because they listen to their leaders. the hajj leads to his house with an iron hand, he is kind, but no freedom of choice. as, for example, the journalist farida one evening, without her husband to a birthday celebration opens the door, explained amines, the new “citizenship” is suspect: “you only like hajj lakhdar returned to the right path can lead!” a husband touches his wife with “kid gloves”, is just a weakling.
“imarat hajj lakhdar” was aired during the ramadan prime time: in the early evening, when the algerian families to break the fast at the table. the series has achieved highest ratings, but also heavy criticism due to “racist” and “sexist” comments to yourself. ferhat m’henni, president of the movement for independence of kabylia (mak) has condemned the distorting representation of the kabyle (an idiot, by his father-in-law hajj lakhdar-dependent), and the regional newspaper la dépêche de kabylie criticised the fact that the series is any different to the misconduct, explain, and “all who claim otherwise, as childish and backward”.2